Geysha Waren Geishas ursprünglich Männer?
Eine Geisha [ˈgeːʃa] (jap. 芸者, „Person der Künste“) ist eine japanische Unterhaltungskünstlerin, die traditionelle japanische Künste darbietet. Oiran oder Geisha? Oiran waren Prostituierte in Japan, die oftmals mit Geishas, Unterhaltungsdamen, verwechselt werden. Dieser Artikel klärt. Weiß geschminkte Haut, rote Lippen und elegant hochgestecktes, schwarzes Haar: Das Bild japanischer Geishas in intrikat gearbeiteten. Geisha bedeutet im Japanischen also so viel wie „Person der Künste und der Unterhaltung“. Waren Geishas ursprünglich Männer? Tatsächlich. Vor allem im westlichen Teil Japans, was Kyoto und Kanazawa betrifft, werden Geishas meist als Geiko (芸子) bezeichnet. Ein weiterer Begriff.
Sie gelten als Ikonen Japans, als Inbegriff von Weiblichkeit. Doch die Zahl der Geishas nimmt weiter ab: Fukuhiro ist eine der letzten ihrer Zunft. Der Begriff»Geisha«ist weltbekannt geworden. Viele Bücher und Filme drehen sich um das Thema Liebe und die Tätigkeiten der Geishas in der traditionellen. Vor allem im westlichen Teil Japans, was Kyoto und Kanazawa betrifft, werden Geishas meist als Geiko (芸子) bezeichnet. Ein weiterer Begriff.
In , it was reported in the New York Times that there were an estimated geisha left throughout the whole of Japan.
Modern geisha still live in okiya , particularly during their apprenticeship, and are legally required to be registered to one, though they may not live there everyday.
Many experienced geisha are successful enough to choose to live independently, though living independently is more common in some geisha districts - such as those in Tokyo - than others.
In recent years, a growing number of geisha have complained to the authorities about being pursued and harassed by groups of tourists keen to take their photograph when out walking.
As a result, tourists in Kyoto have been warned not to harass geisha on the streets, with local residents of the city and businesses in the areas surrounding the hanamachi of Kyoto launching patrols throughout Gion in order to prevent tourists from harassing geisha.
Geisha work in districts known as hanamachi - lit. Courtesans were said to be the "flowers" in this moniker due to their showy and beautiful nature, with geisha being the "willows" due to their understated nature.
Part of the comparison between geisha and willows comes from the perceived loyalty amongst geisha to their patrons - over time, it became known that certain factions, such as certain political parties, would patronise some geisha districts with their rivals patronising others.
Though courtesans and by extension, sex workers were humourously known for having loyalty only to the customer paying them for the night, a geisha would stand by her patrons and defend their best interests, her loyalty to her patrons being perceived as higher than her loyalty to her money.
Historically, geisha on occasion were confined to operate in the same walled districts as courtesans and sex workers; however, both professions have on some level always maintained a distance officially, despite often being legislated against by the same laws.
The hanamachi in Kyoto are known for their adherence to tradition and high prestige, with the image of a Kyoto maiko typifying that of geisha culture within wider Japanese and international society.
In Kyoto, the different hanamachi - known as the gokagai lit. Though regional hanamachi are typically not large enough to have a hierarchy, regional geisha districts are seen as having less prestige than those in Kyoto, viewed as being the pinnacle of tradition in the karyukai.
Geisha in onsen towns such as Atami may also be seen as less prestigious, as geisha working in these towns are typically hired to work in one hotel for travelling customers they are usually not familiar with before entertaining; nevertheless, all geisha, regardless of region or district, are trained in the traditional arts, making the distinction of prestige one of history and tradition.
Before the twentieth century, geisha began their training at a young age, around the age of six. In the present day this is no longer the case, and geisha usually debut as maiko around the age of 17 or Labour laws stipulate that that apprentices only join an okiya aged 18, although okiya in Kyoto are legally allowed to take on recruits at a younger age, 15— Young women who wish to become geisha now most often begin their training after high school or even college.
Many more women begin their careers in adulthood. Apprentices also learn how to comfortably wear kimono. Traditionally the shikomi stage of training lasted for years, and some girls were bonded to geisha houses as children.
Daughters of geisha were often brought up as geisha themselves, usually as the successor atotori , meaning "heir" or "heiress" or daughter-role [ clarification needed ] musume-bun to the okiya.
Successors, however, were not always blood relations. Nowadays, a girl is often a shikomi for up to a year. A maiko is an apprentice and is therefore bonded under a contract to her okiya.
The okiya will usually supply her with food, board, kimono, obi , and other tools of her trade, but a maiko may decide to fund everything herself from the beginning with either a loan or the help of an outside guarantor.
This repayment may continue after graduation to geishahood, and only when her debts are settled can a geisha claim her entire wages and work independently if loaning from the okiya.
After this point she may chose to stay on living at her okiya , must still be affiliated to one to work, and even living away from the okiya , will usually commute there to begin her working evening.
In this way, a trainee gains insights into the nature of the job, following the typical nature of traditional arts apprenticeships in Japan, wherein an apprentice is expected to learn almost entirely through observation.
Although geisha at the stage of minarai training will attend parties, they will not participate on an involved level and are instead expected to sit quietly.
Minarai usually charge just a third of the fee a typical geisha would charge, and typically work within just one particular tea house, known as the minarai-jaya - learning from the "mother" proprietress of the house.
The minarai stage of training involves learning techniques of conversation, typical party games, and proper decorum and behaviour at banquets and parties.
This stage lasts only about a month or so. After the minarai period, a trainee will make her official debut misedashi and become a maiko.
This stage can last between 3 and 5 years. During this time, they learn from both other trainees senior to them, and their geisha mentors, with special emphasis placed on learning from her symbolic "older sister" onee-san.
This involves learning how to serve drinks, hold casual conversation, and some training in the arts, though the latter is usually carried out through by dance and music teachers.
There are three major elements of a maiko 's training. The first is the formal arts training, which takes place in schools found in every hanamachi.
Around the age of 20—21, a maiko will graduate to geisha status in a ceremony known as erikae turning of the collar. Following debut, geisha typically do not go through major role changes, as there are no more formal stages of training.
However, geisha can and do work into their eighties and nineties,  and are still expected to train regularly,  though lessons may only be put on a few times a month.
New geisha are trained for the most part by their symbolic mothers and older sisters, and engagements are arranged through the mother of the house.
Infrequently, men take contingent positions such as hair stylists,  dressers known as otokoshi , as dressing a maiko requires considerable strength and accountants.
The heads iemoto of some dance and music schools that geisha train under, however, may be male, with some barrier to entry for women to achieve the legacy of being the head of an artistic school.
The geisha system was founded, actually, to promote the independence and economic self-sufficiency of women.
And that was its stated purpose, and it actually accomplished that quite admirably in Japanese society, where there were very few routes for women to achieve that sort of independence.
Historically, the majority of women within Japan were wives who could not work due to familial duties. A geisha, however, could achieve independence by working to pay off her debts, making the profession one method for women to support themselves without becoming a wife.
Over time, some Japanese feminists have seen geisha as exploited women, but some modern geisha see themselves as liberated feminists: "We find our own way, without doing family responsibilities.
Isn't that what feminists are? Historically, geisha held an appeal for mainly male guests as a woman outside of the role of "wife". Wives were modest, responsible, and at times sombre, whereas geisha could be playful and carefree.
Geisha would, on occasion, marry their clients, but marriage required retirement as a matter of fact. Though relatively uncommon in previous decades, geisha parties are no longer understood to be affairs for male guests exclusively, with women commonly attending parties alongside other male guests.
Though geisha will still gracefully flirt and entertain male guests, this is understood to be a part of a geisha's hostessing and entertainment skills, and is not taken as a serious sign of personal interest.
Despite long-held connotations between sex and geisha, a geisha's sex and love life is usually distinct from her professional life.
Geishas are not submissive and subservient, but in fact they are some of the most financially and emotionally successful and strongest women in Japan, and traditionally have been so.
Most geisha are single women, though they may have lovers or boyfriends over time, and are allowed to pursue these relationships outside of having a patron.
In the present day, some geisha are married and continue to work in their capacity as geisha, despite it being uncommon; these geisha are likely to be based in regions outside of Kyoto, as its ultra-traditionalist geisha districts would be unlikely to allow a married geisha to work.
Geisha have historically been conflated with sex work and commonly confused with prostitutes, despite the profession being mostly forbidden from receiving payment for sex since its inception.
Despite this, some geisha have historically engaged in sex work, either through personal choice, or through coercion and at times force.
Nonetheless, the government maintained an official distinction between both professions, arguing that geisha should not be conflated with or confused for sex workers.
Though the law officially maintained a distance between geisha and sex workers, some geisha still engaged in sex work.
Writing in , former geisha Sayo Masuda wrote of her experiences in the onsen town of Suwa, Nagano Prefecture , where she was sold for her virginity a number of times by the mother of her okiya.
Such practices could be common in less reputable geisha districts, with onsen towns in particular being known for their so-called "double registered" geisha a term for an entertainer registered as both a geisha and a sex worker.
In the present day, mizuage does not exist, and apprentices mark their graduation to geisha status with a series of ceremonies and events. Despite this, the modern conflation between geisha and sex workers continues as a pervasive idea, particularly in Western culture.
Sheridan Prasso wrote that Americans had "an incorrect impression of the real geisha world Henshall stated that the job of a geisha included "[entertaining] their customer, be it by dancing, reciting verse, playing musical instruments, or engaging in light conversation.
Geisha engagements may include flirting with men and playful innuendos; however, clients know that nothing more can be expected.
In a social style that is common in Japan, men are amused by the illusion of that which is never to be. In the past, it had been unspoken tradition for an established geisha to take a danna , or patron, who would pay for her expenses, buy her gifts, and engage her on a more personal level - at times involving sex - than a banquet or party would allow.
This would be seen as a sign of the man's generosity, wealth and status, as the expenses associated with being a geisha were relatively high; as such, a danna was typically a wealthy man, sometimes married, who may have been financially supporting the geisha in question through company expenses.
In the present day, it is less common for a geisha to take a danna , purely due to the expenses involved and the unlikelihood that a modern man could support both his household and the cost of a geisha's living.
Nonetheless, it was still common for geisha to retire from the profession in their mid-twenties to live off the support of their patron following the Second World War.
The taking of a patron by a geisha is the closest thing to paid compensation for a personal partnership - whatever that partnership might entail - that a geisha officially engages in today.
During the Allied occupation of Japan , some sex workers, almost exclusively working for the occupying forces in Japan, began to advertise themselves as "geisha girls", due in part to the fact that many foreign soldiers could not tell the difference between a geisha and a woman dressed in a kimono.
These women came to be known commonly as "geesha girls",   a misnomer originating from the language barrier between the armed forces and the sex workers themselves; the term spread quickly, as evidenced by the fact that shortly after their arrival in , it was said that some occupying American GIs congregated in Ginza and shouted "We want geesha girls!
The English term "geisha girl" soon became a byword for any female Japanese sex worker, whether actually selling sex or not; the term was applied to bar hostesses who occupy the role of entertaining men through conversation, not necessarily sex and streetwalkers alike.
Unscrupulous okiya owners would not uncommonly sell an apprentice's virginity more than once to different customers, pocketing the entire fee for themselves with the apprentice herself remaining an apprentice.
During WW2, some sex workers would use this term to refer to their acts with customers, leading to some confusion - particularly when referring to themselves as "geisha" when in the company of foreign soldiers, and sometimes amongst Japanese customers.
Since the s, non-Japanese have also become geisha. While traditionally geisha led a cloistered existence, in recent years they have become more publicly visible, and entertainment is available without requiring the traditional introduction and connections.
All the Kyoto hanamachi hold these annually mostly in spring, with one exclusively in autumn , dating to the Kyoto exhibition of ,  and there are many performances, with tickets being inexpensive, ranging from around yen to yen — top-price tickets also include an optional tea ceremony tea and wagashi served by maiko before the performance.
During this ceremony, geisha and maiko from the Kamishichiken district in northwest Kyoto serve tea to 3, guests.
Geisha entertain their guests with a combination of both their hostessing and conversational skills, and their skills in traditional Japanese art forms of dance, music and singing.
Before deciding to begin a career as a geisha, new recruits are generally expected to have an interest in the arts, as well as some experience; however, as geisha numbers have fallen throughout the decades, this is no longer a strict prerequisite.
Some okiya will take on recruits with no previous experience, with some young geisha, despite having existing experience, expected to begin their lessons from the beginning.
Over time, the more exaggerated theatrical styles evolved into the subtle and more stylised form of dancing used today; despite the difference, elements of traditional Japanese dance, such as the use of gestures to tell a story and the symbolism used to represent this, run throughout both as a common feature.
These dances are accompanied by traditional Japanese music. The primary instrument used by geisha to accompany dance is the shamisen , a banjo-like three-stringed instrument played with a plectrum.
Originating in China as the sanxian , it was introduced to Japan through firstly Korea, and then the Ryukyu Islands in the s, obtaining its current form within a century.
The shamisen soon became the mainstay instrument of geisha entertainment in the s. All geisha must learn to play the shamisen , alongside additional instruments that often accompany the shamisen , such as the ko-tsuzumi small shoulder drum and fue flute , during their apprenticeship, as well as learning traditional Japanese dance; however, after graduation to geisha status, geisha are free to choose which art form they wish to pursue primarily.
Some geisha not only dance and play music, but also write poems, paint pictures, or compose music. A geisha's appearance changes symbolically throughout her career, representing her training and seniority.
These constitute changes in hairstyle, hair accessories, and kimono style. Both maiko and geisha wear traditional white foundation known as oshiroi ; this is worn with red and black eye and eyebrow makeup, red lips and light pink blusher.
Both maiko and geisha underpaint their lips with a red lipstick known as beni , but first-year apprentice geisha paint only the lower lip, and wear less black around the eyes and eyebrows than senior maiko.
Younger apprentices may also paint their eyebrows slightly shorter or rounder to emphasise a youthful appearance. Geisha wear more black around the eyes and eyebrows than maiko , and older geisha tend only to wear a full face of traditional white makeup during stage performances or on special occasions; older geisha generally stop wearing oshiroi around the same time they stop wearing hikizuri to parties.
Teeth blackening was once a common practice amongst married women in Japan and the imperial court in earlier times, but is now an extremely uncommon practice.
Geisha and maiko always wear kimono while working, and typically wear kimono outside of work. However, the type of kimono varies based on age, occasion, region and season of the year.
Both maiko and geisha wear the collar on their kimono relatively far back, accentuating for maiko the red collar of the underkimono juban , and displaying for both the two or three stripes of bare skin eri-ashi and sanbon-ashi respectively left just underneath the hairline when wearing oshiroi.
Apprentice geisha wear kimono known as hikizuri. Geisha also wear hikizuri ; however, maiko wear a variety with furisode -style sleeves, with a tuck sewn into either sleeve, and a tuck sewn into each shoulder.
Maiko hikizuri tend to be colourful and highly decorated, often featuring a design that continues inside the kimono's hem.
The style of this kimono varies throughout different regions; apprentices in Kyoto tend to wear large but sparsely-placed motifs, whereas apprentices elsewhere appear in kimono similar to a regular furisode , with small, busy patterns that cover a greater area.
Apprentices wear long, formal obi. For apprentices in Kyoto this is almost always a darari lit. Darari are always worn in a knot showing off the length, whereas apprentices elsewhere wear fukura-suzume and han-dara lit.
When wearing casual kimono in off-duty settings, an apprentice may still wear a nagoya obi , even with a yukata.
Geisha wear kimono more subdued in pattern and colour than both regular kimono, and the kimono worn by apprentice geisha.
A geisha always wear a short-sleeved kimono, regardless of occasion, formality, or even her age; however, not all geisha wear the hikizuri type of kimono, as older geisha wear regular formal kimono - with no trailing skirt, dipping collar or offset sleeves - to engagements.
Regional geisha tend to have greater similarities with fellow geisha across the country in terms of appearance.
Geisha wear their obi in the nijuudaiko musubi style - a taiko musubi drum knot tied with a fukuro obi ; geisha from Tokyo and Kanazawa also wear their obi in the yanagi musubi willow knot style and the tsunodashi musubi style.
Though geisha may wear hakata ori obi in the summer months, geisha from Fukuoka - where the fabric originates from - may wear it the entire year. The hairstyles of geisha have varied throughout history.
During the 17th century, the shimada hairstyle developed, which became the basis for the hairstyles worn by both geisha and maiko. When the profession of geisha first came into existence, dress edicts prevented geisha from wearing the dramatic hairstyles worn by courtesans, leading to the subdued nature of most geisha hairstyles.
Geisha, unable to reliably book in with a hairstylist once a week to maintain their hair, began to wear human hair wigs in the shimada style that required restyling far less.
The hairstyles of maiko , still utilising the apprentice's own hair, became wider, placed higher upon the head, and shorter in length.
There are five different hairstyles that a maiko wears, which mark the different stages of her apprenticeship. The nihongami hairstyle with kanzashi hair ornaments are most closely associated with maiko ,  who spend hours each week at the hairdresser and sleep on special pillows takamakura to preserve the elaborate styling.
Maiko in certain districts of Kyoto may also wear additional, differing hairstyles in the run up to graduating as a geisha. In the present day, geisha wear a variety of the shimada known as the tsubushi shimada - a flattened, sleeker version of the taka shimada worn as a bridal wig in traditional weddings.
Though geisha also wear this hairstyle as a wig, it is usually shaped specifically to their face by a wig stylist.
Both the hairstyles of maiko and geisha are decorated with hair combs and hairpins kanzashi , with geisha wearing far fewer kanzashi than maiko.
The style and colour of hair accessories worn with some maiko hairstyles can signify the stage of an apprentice's training.
Typical combs and hairpins may be made of tortoiseshell or mock-tortoiseshell, gold, silver and semi-precious stones such as jade and coral. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Traditional Japanese female entertainer and hostess. Main article: Mizuage. Further information: Oshiroi.
Main article: Kimono. Forvo Media. Retrieved 1 June Autobiography of a Geisha. Translated by Rowley, G. New York: Columbia University Press.
Geisha 3rd ed. London: Vintage Random House. Toki Tokyo. New York: Gotham Books. Liza Dalby. Retrieved 30 May London: PRC.
The Vintage News. Retrieved 6 November Japan Zone. Retrieved 18 June In Feldman, Martha; Gordon, Bonnie eds. The Story of the Geisha Girl.
March . Yoshiwara: the glittering world of the Japanese courtesan illustrated ed. A Maiko aprende com sua mentora a segui-la a todos os seus compromissos.
A onee-san ensina-lhe tudo sobre como trabalhar no hanamachi. Sobrancelhas curtas demonstram juventude e longas demonstram maturidade. A aprendiz de gueixa se veste com um quimono altamente colorido, com um extravagante obi.
A geiko veste vermelho ou rosa nagajuban , sob o quimono. Uma maiko usa vermelho e branco com padrões impressos.
A maiko usa um tamanco de madeira especial conhecido como okobo. Ela tem que ser perfeita". A maiko de [Miyagawa-cho e Pontocho vai usar mais seis penteados que antecederam o tipo Sakko , incluindo Umemodoki , no Oshidori Hina , Kikugasane , e Osafune.
Muitas gueixas modernas usam perucas em suas vidas profissionais, enquanto a maiko usa o seu cabelo natural.
Foi tradicional no passado para gueixa estabelecida tomar um danna , ou patrono. Isto ainda ocorre hoje, mas muito raramente.
Ver artigo principal: Mizuage. February . ISBN London: PRC, Retrieved The Story of the Geisha Girl.
March . Yoshiwara: the glittering world of the Japanese courtesan illustrated ed. University of Hawaii Press. Geiko was the pronunciation used in the Kamigata region.
Some geiko operated as illegal prostitutes. By the nineteenth century the term became synonymous with geisha. SSRN